> Obsahy časopisů pro ESF

Sociologický časopis – 4/2009

Záznam přidán/aktualizován: 29. březen 2011 v 12.44 hod.

Obsah čísla

Iva Šmídová: Úvodem k monotematickému číslu „Instituce genderu a gender institucí“ [645]

STATI

Mariana Szapuová: Rod vo vede: teoretické perspektívy a ich uplatnenie vo výskume [649]

Abstract: The objective of this article is to show how issues concerning women in science and the problem of gendered science, often treated separately, are interconnected. To examine how research on women in science and research on gender and science relate to each other, some feminist epistemological perspectives, mainly feminist contextual empiricism, are used in order to show how the feminist philosophical conceptual framework may be useful for understanding the problems currently faced by women in science. After reflecting and elaborating on the very thesis of gendered science, the author analyses in more detail the concept of epistemic communities and the concept of trust as an epistemic factor. Through these concepts the author argues that philosophical/ epistemological considerations are fruitful for studying the experience of individual women in science. Both of these interrelated concepts are considered highly relevant in the search for an epistemological framework facilitating the thematic study of women in science on a theoretical level and research on the current situation of women in the academic world in Slovakia.

Keywords: feminist epistemologies, gendered science, epistemic communities, trust, equal opportunities, Slovakia.

Sharon Marcus: Genealogie manželství [671]

Abstract: The article investigates the practice of female marriages in 19th century Great Britain and United States and argues that female marriages provided model for more progressive forms of the legal marriage between men and women. Unlike homosexuality in the 20th century, the same-sex relationships between women in the 19th century often enjoyed social recognition and some women in female marriages occupied prominent social positions. Because they were considered to rest on contract, female marriages served as inspiration for the contractual view of marriage advocated by many supporters of the Victorian marriage reform. The contribution of women in female couples to the success of the marriage reform was further underlined by their belonging to influential social networks. The author also argues that while the structuralist anthropology of mid-20th century, represented through the work of Claude Lévi-Strauss, had limited understanding of homosexuality as a socially legitimate phenomenon, the Victorian anthropology of the second half of the 19th century was relatively more open regarding the same-sex relationships. It is contended that authors as diverse as Henry Maine, Johann Bachofen, or Frederick Engels provided impulses in their work both for a positive evaluation of the same-sex relationships and for a more egalitarian understanding of marriage.

Keywords: female marriages, social history of marriage, GLBT studies, Victorian studies, social anthropology – history of.

ZE SOCIOLOGICKÝCH VÝZKUMŮ

Iva Šmídová: Genderovaná volba práce: statusové šance a vzdělávací rozhodovací strategie [707]

Abstract: The article provides an overview of the main theoretical approaches to research on educational choices and anticipated labour-market opportunities from a gender perspective. It then presents the results of three quantitative analyses of secondary data. The objective is to help facilitate a complex understanding of the mechanisms of the reproduction of gendered social structures. The genderedness of the social institutions in the education system and the labour market in relation to the socialising trends in the family is described in three parts: 1) gender segregation in employment in the context of segregation in education – the author shows that the horizontal dimension of these social institutions plays a more significant role than the vertical dimension; 2) the factors that condition girls’ and boys’ educational aspirations and choice of schools – the author demonstrates how secondary school choices are gendered (though the analysis did not reveal the differences between the factors that infl uence girls’ and boys’ aspirations); 3) the factors that condition parents’ educational and class aspirations for their sons and daughters – the author uncovers several aspects of the socialising effect of the reproduction of the two traditional career trajectories based on gender. In conclusion, the article answers the question of how structurally gendered expectations cohere with individual career trajectories, and based on the three analyses formulates questions for further research and offers a revised theoretical conceptualisation of gender as an analytical category.

Keywords: gendered social structures, labour market segregation, educational aspirations, educational choice, gender and education, Czech Republic.

Lucie Jarkovská: Školní třída pod genderovou lupou [727]

Abstract: The article presents selected results from an ethnographic study on the (re)production of gender in the classroom. In this analysis, gender is conceived as a principle manifested in interactions, a principle that structures the lives of individuals and the collective, and not as a complex of essential characteristics of an individual. Gender is analysed in relation to other categories like age and ethnicity. These represent additional re/constructed categories that influence social inequality. These categories tend to be viewed as natural sources of social difference and the legitimisation of inequalities. An analysis of the ways in which these categories are activated in the social field makes it possible to go beyond the boundaries of research on the reification of these categories. In this article, the author shows how these categories intertwine and connect and how the interplay between them is manifested in the behaviour and strategies of various actors, i.e. students, in the classroom.

Keywords: gender, ethnicity, age, inequality, ethnography, school, Czech Republic.

Radka Dudová: Práce jako řešení? Strategie obživy osamělých matek v ČR [753]

Abstract: When examining the gender of institutions of parenthood, lone motherhood is a key issue. In this article the author focuses on the economic implications of lone motherhood and on the strategies that women living with children without a partner develop in order to ensure their livelihood. The author begins by presenting the theoretical background and some results from European and North American research on lone motherhood. She then provides an overview of research on lone parenthood done in the Czech Republic since 1959. Finally, the author describes the qualitative study she conducted on divorced mothers. The results show how women deal economically with marital separation and which livelihood strategies they opt for. The research methodology was based on constructivist grounded theory and the technique of interviews. From the research results the author distinguishes five basic strategies that can be combined and that are based on the sources that women have at their disposal. Those strategies may differ in terms of their degree of success, dependence/independence on others, and their efficacy at different points in time. The results also indicate that the success of these working strategies depends mainly on the age of the youngest child in the family and the caring responsibilities required by that age. The author argues that while for some women heading one-parent families paid work is an option that allows them to obtain a certain degree of independence and self-confidence, its efficacy depends on the context and immediate conditions in which the women find themselves. Overstressing the employment of lone mothers as a universal solution may thus lead to new dependencies.

Keywords: lone mothers, poverty, work, divorce, gender, Czech Republic.

Martina Kampichler: Politiky genderové nerovnosti mužů a žen v Evropské unii z hlediska analýzy rámců [785]

Abstract: This article deals with the political problematisation of gender inequalities in the context of the European Union’s gender equality policies on a supranational level. Based on the concept of transnational advocacy networks (TAN), the first part of the article presents the European Women’s Lobby and units at the European Commission dealing with gender equality policies as two key actors in TAN that promote gender equality issues within the structures of the EU. The article then moves on to describe policy frame analysis as an approach to analysing the way in which the gender inequalities addressed by these actors are politically problematised in three policy documents connected to the European Commission’s ‘Roadmap for Equality between Women and Men 2006–2010’. The analysis focuses on the main frames in these documents that legitimise the existence of an independent policy field concerned with gender equality at the EU level and discusses the ramifications of these frames for the promotion of gender equality; for example, how certain policy measures might lead to different outcomes when promoted within different frames.

Keywords: gender equality policies, frame analysis, transnational advocacy networks, cooptation, agenda setting, European Union.

Zdeňka Kalnická: Genderovanost filozofického kánonu a textové „strategie“ marginalizace filozofek [809]

Abstract: This article examines the issue of the genderedness of the philosophical canon. In the theoretical part of the article the author gives evidence of the constructed nature of the philosophical canon, which in the Euro-American space is clearly androcentric. She summarises criticism to date of the philosophical canon by feminist historians of philosophy and describes the results of their research, which is directed at several areas: uncovering forgotten women philosophers of the past; analysing philosophers’ views on gender; identifying the genderedness of basic philosophical categories; criticising the dualism that characterises modern philosophical discourse; and finally, making various reinterpretations of the concepts of past philosophers. Each of these approaches has particular potential and limitations, which the author seeks to identify. In the second part of the article the author presents the results of her analysis of philosophy textbooks and books on the history of philosophy published in the Czech Republic after 1990. She conducted her analysis by comparing information on women philosophers contained in the texts of the selected books with the information available in other literature (mainly English). She also employed the typological method, and she identified five ‘strategies’ of marginalisation of women philosophers, whereby textbooks used at Czech universities contribute to maintaining the existing philosophical canon.

Keywords: philosophical canon, feminist critique, women philosophers, philosophy – teaching of, feminist history of philosophy, Czech Republic.

RECENZE

Martina Hynková: Jana Cviková (ed.): Aká práca, taká pláca? Aspekty rodovej nerovnosti v odmeňovaní [835]

Michaela Bartošová: Radka Dudová (ed.): Nové šance a rizika. Flexibilita práce, marginalizace a soukromý život u vybraných povolání a sociálních skupin [839]

Ľubica Kobová: Lois McNay: Against Recognition [843]

Lukáš Sedláček: Michael S. Kimmel: The Gender of Desire. Essays on male sexuality [847]

Lenka Slepičková: Charis Thompson: Making Parents: The Ontological Choreography of Reproductive Technologies [849]

Tereza Pospíšilová: Ondřej Císař: Politický aktivismus v České republice [852]

ZPRÁVY

Jiří Navrátil: Konference Alternative Futures and Popular Protest [855]

Petr Lupač: Mezinárodní konference Society-Culture-Technology at the Dawn of the 21st Century [859]

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