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Sociologický časopis – 5/2009

Záznam přidán/aktualizován: 29. březen 2011 v 12.45 hod.

Obsah čísla

STATI

Kateřina Vráblíková: Politická participace a její determinanty v postkomunistických zemích [867]

The article focuses on the differences in political participation among post-communist countries. First, it explores the variation in the level of political participation among post-communist states. Second, it deals with the differences in the determinants that account for political participation in individual countries. The second objective is met by introducing a three-dimensional explanatory model of political participation: individual resources, motivations, and social networks. In an empirical analysis political participation in nine post-communist countries is examined using data from the International Social Survey Programme 2004. Results show that the countries under study vary in the level of political participation both at the aggregate and individual levels. The most active citizens are in the former East Germany and Slovakia. Polish and Hungarian citizens participate in politics the least. Further, two modes of political participation – protest activity and contacting – are identified and used as dependent variables in further analysis. In the second part of the article, the explanatory model is tested against data from individual countries. The analysis shows that there is a difference in the factors that account for political participation in various post-communist countries. Generally, the three-level model of political participation works best in Hungary, Bulgaria, and East Germany. It explains very little variation in Russia and Poland.

Keywords: political participation, post-communist countries, individual resources, political attitudes, social capital.

Petr Pakosta: Proč chceme děti: hodnota dítěte a preferovaný počet dětí v České republice [899]

Abstract: Surveys often reveal that the number of children people would like to have is greater than the number they actually have. This article examines the question of why people actually want children and bases its answers on data from the 2006 Value of Children Survey, which reintroduces the value of children concept from the 1970s. The battery of survey questions used identified six dimensions of the value of children (The positives of parenthood; Natural drives and goals; Tradition and social status; Social pressure; Limitations and losses; and Decision inhibitors). The respondents, young people between the ages of 28 and 34, see the main reasons for deciding to have children in the positive feelings associated with raising children and with successful parenthood as a natural part of life. They associate parenthood less with responses about social norms and pressure or with rational considerations about all the pros and cons of having children, and they see parenthood as their own, individual decision. A data analysis based on a multinomial logistic regression shows that declared attitudes to a limited extent infl uence the preferred number of children and that the Czech population is still dominated by the idea of the two-child family with two biological parents, while declared voluntary childlessness is still a marginal phenomenon.

Keywords: fertility, value of children, natal preferences, parenthood, Czech Republic.

ZE SOCIOLOGICKÝCH VÝZKUMŮ

Natalie Simonová, Petr Soukup: Reprodukce vzdělanostních nerovností v České republice po sametové revoluci v evropském kontextu [935]

Abstract: This article traces the effect of socio-economic, cultural, and gender factors on the reproduction of educational inequalities in access to tertiary education in the Czech Republic, Switzerland, Germany, Poland, and Sweden. Single-country analyses conducted to date on the Czech Republic have reached conflicting results both on the development of educational inequalities since the fall of socialism and on the weight of the factors behind those inequalities. Also, no international comparison has been conducted. Thus, the authors pursue two new directions of inquiry: 1) an international comparison, and 2) an update of the development of inequalities in all the mentioned countries since 2002. The authors used multi-dimensional statistical methods (logit models and a log-linear analysis) and the most recent available international data from the European Social Survey. The results revealed that out of all the countries studied it is in the Czech Republic that access to tertiary education is currently determined most by the cultural component of social background (the father’s education). The country closest to the Czech Republic in this regard is Switzerland. The educational status of the family is also a crucial factor in educational reproduction in Sweden. Paradoxically, in the countries that historically and geographically are closest to the Czech Republic, namely, Poland and Germany, the crucial determinant in the transmission of educational status is the father’s class.

Keywords: educational reproduction, educational inequalities, Czech Republic.

Martin Lux, Tomáš Kostelecký, Martina Mikeszová, Petr Sunega: Vybrané faktory stojící za vysokými cenami bytů v Praze [967]

Abstract: This article deals first with the relative affordability of owner-occupied housing in Prague compared to the situation in the Czech Republic in general. The relative position of Prague in this region is then assessed in a cross-national comparison and determined to be specific. The article’s main objective is to uncover the main demand factors behind the high prices and the low affordability of owner-occupied housing in Prague. The authors focus on factors that derive from the specific economic position of Prague and the specific culturally-rooted preferences of Czech citizens for owner-occupied housing. Findings from numerous sociological studies and experiments have proved both of these factors to be very important, and their future development will thus largely be influenced by the affordability of housing in Prague.

Keywords: housing affordability, house prices, housing demand.

Petr Matějů, Tomáš Konečný, Simona Weidnerová, Hans Vossensteyn: Financování studia a vývoj v nerovnostech v přístupu k vysokoškolskému vzdělávání v České republice a Nizozemsku [993]

Abstract: This article focuses on the connection between financial aid systems in higher education and the development of inequalities in access to higher education. Although the student financial aid system is just one of a number of factors that influence a person’s chances of studying in higher education, its role in a person’s decision to pursue higher education may be of fundamental significance for those with lower socio-economic status. Therefore, the authors of this article focus on the effect of the financial conditions of study on the chances that individuals from families with low socio-economic status have obtained higher education. The analysis looks at developments in the Czech Republic and the Netherlands, because Czech and Dutch student financial aid systems have been evolving in very different directions over the last two decades, while their secondary school systems continue to share very similar features. The analysis reveals that student financial aid based primarily on direct financial support (as in the Netherlands) was accompanied by a decline in inequalities in access to education, even though students had to pay tuition, while a system of financial aid primarily involving indirect support (as in the Czech Republic) applied over the same period did not inhibit increasing inequalities, despite the fact that during the period under observation students were not required to pay tuition.

Keywords: higher education, accessibility, inequality, student financial aid, Czech Republic, Netherlands.

DISKUSE

Tomáš Katrňák: Jaký je mechanismus snižování nerovných šancí na vzdělání podle sociálního původu? [1033]

Martin Kreidl: Je možné doložit efekt jedné proměnné na druhou analýzou dvou případů? K srovnávací metodologii s malým počtem komparovaných případů [1038]

Petr Matějů, Tomáš Konečný: Může sociologie přispět k deficitům veřejných politik? Odpověď na polemické příspěvky Tomáše Katrňáka a Martina Kreidla [1045]

ESEJE

Jan Balon: Ambivalentní odkaz Millsovy Sociologické imaginace [1055]

Abstract: Charles Wright Mills wrote his renowned and bestselling The Sociological Imagination fifty years ago with the ambition of providing an alternative to the theoretically unsubstantial and methodologically inhibiting approaches that predominated at that time. His battle against the idea of a politically and morally neutral understanding of social inquiry was rhetorically compelling and anticipated the radical voices that would be heard in the late 1960s. It is argued in this article that probably the best lesson we can get from Mills has to do with his understanding of ‘sociology as a profession’. His argument addresses crucially important questions about the public relevance of social inquiry and the underlying themes of social-scientific reflexivity, creativity, and non-conformity. However, despite his rhetorical force and stylistic brilliance, Mills’ overall message is considered ambivalent. His concept of social inquiry based on identification of morally and politically relevant problems ultimately leads to the vaporisation of the very substance of social inquiry and to the institutional debilitation of the field as such. The resulting uncertainty concerning the basic means and ends of sociology, together with a hyper-tolerance towards the delineation of sociological research area, often leads to the identifi cation of relevant problems on the basis of individual choice, inspiration, creativity, or imagination. It is suggested that this understanding of Mills’ legacy usually results in the trivialisation and parody of the overall message embodied in The Sociological Imagination.

Keywords: imagination, creativity, identification of problems, value-neutrality, morally committed social inquiry.

JUBILEUM

Jiří Musil: 75 let Michala Illnera – soustředěnost a loajalita [1073]

MEDAILONY

Miloslav Petrusek: Zapomenutí a opomíjení. Dvacet let od úmrtí profesora Vojtěcha Tlustého [1077]

Dušan Janák: Ohlédnutí za sociologií Inocence Arnošta Bláhy [1081]

NEKROLOG

Jiří Musil: Typický reprezentant britské sociologie: Peter Townsend [1091]

Lukáš Novotný: Ralf Dahrendorf (1929–2009) [1093]

RECENZNÍ ESEJ

Martin Kreidl: Vývoj výběrového párování v posledních dvaceti letech indikuje uzavírání sociální struktury české společnosti [1099]

RECENZE

Miroslav Tížik: Dušan Lužný, Zdeněk R. Nešpor et al.: Náboženství v menšině. Religiozita a spiritualita v současné české společnosti [1107]

Ondřej Hejnal: Marek Jakoubek, Lenka Budilová (eds.): Romové a Cikáni – neznámí i známí. Interdisciplinární pohled [1111]

Zdeněk R. Nešpor: Robert Klobucký: Hlasistické hnutie: národ a sociológia. Začiatky sociologického myslenia na Slovensku [1114]

Stanislav Myšička: Lenka Strnadová: Současné podoby občanské společnosti: kritická perspektiva [1117]

Dušan Janák: Zdeněk R. Nešpor: Ne/náboženské naděje intelektuálů. Vývoj české sociologie náboženství v mezinárodním a interdisciplinárním kontextu [1121]

Arnošt Svoboda: Aleš Sekot: Sociologické problémy sportu [1123]

Lucie Vidovićová: Dana Sýkorová: Autonomie ve stáří [1126]

Karel Müller: Nico Stehr: Die Moralisierung der Märkte, Eine Gesellschaftstheorie [1128]

Karel Černý: Edward W. Said: Orientalismus. Západní koncepce Orientu [1132]

Petr Vidomus: Peter J. Jacques: Environmental Skepticism – Ecology, Power and Public Life [1136]

ZPRÁVY

Martin Lux, Michaela Vojtková: Mezinárodní konference ENHR 09 – Prague Changing Housing Markets: Integration and Segmentation [1141]

Jana Chaloupková: Letní škola kvantitativních metod v sociálních vědách (École d’été de Lille en Méthodes Quantitatives des Sciences Sociales). Modul metod kvantitativní analýzy biografických dat (Le traitement quantitatif des données biographiques) [1143]

Zdenka Vajdová: Konference VALDOR a projekt ARGONA [1144]

Roman Vido: Konference Les Défis du Pluralisme Religieux / The Challenges of Religious Pluralism [1147]

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