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Sociologický časopis – 1/2010

Záznam přidán/aktualizován: 29. březen 2011 v 12.56 hod.

Obsah čísla

ZE SOCIOLOGICKÝCH VÝZKUMŮ

Petr Sunega, Martin Lux: Segmentace českých domácností a orientační prognóza počtu domácností ve vybraných právních formách bydlení a typech zástavby do roku 2020 [3]

Abstract: In many advanced countries housing consumption plays a significant role in the social stratification of households. First, the article sets out to determine whether during the transformation period significant differentiation of housing consumption occurred and social stratification became linked to stratification by housing consumption. In other words, whether alongside the ‘standard’ criteria (age, education, income, and other socio-economic variables) influencing the stratification of Czech households it is also necessary to take into account the type and quality of housing. Second, in relation to these findings on stratification, Czech households are segmented into 12 segments. The article then makes some general prognoses for each household segment regarding the number of households in selected forms of housing and types of housing development for 2020. These prognoses showed that if ‘optimistic’ outlooks for economic development are met and Czech citizens’ housing preferences remain constant, there could be a substantial increase compared to today in the share of Czech households living in family homes and even to a certain excess of supply of rental flats over demand.

Keywords: housing, consumption, housing classes, segmentation, prognoses, Czech Republic.

Tomáš Konečný, Josef Basl, Jan Mysliveček: Přechod mezi střední a vysokou školou a role různých modelů přijímacích řízení [43]

Abstract: The study evaluates the potential impact of alternative models of university entrance exams – a model based on field-specific knowledge and a model relying on general aptitude tests – in the context of the Czech education system since 1998, a system that can be described as highly stratified and suffering from a notable excess of demand for higher education over supply. Using the dataset Sonda Maturant 1998, the authors show that entrance exams based on general aptitude tests may outperform the field-specific knowledge model in terms of providing access to talented students from a lower socioeconomic background. The simulations show that under the general aptitude regime the relative chances of an applicant with a university-educated father are only one-quarter higher than the relative chances of a student with a less educated father, compared to more than a one-third difference in the case of the regime emphasising field-specific knowledge. For mother’s education, the respective odds ratios differ by the even larger margin of 28 percentage points.

Keywords: higher education, entrance exams, educational equity, Czech Republic.

Jana Havlíková: Přechod do dospělosti dlouhodobě nezaměstnaných absolventů učebních oborů z Brna a okolí [73]

Abstract: The aim of this article is to provide insight into the circumstances of long-term unemployed graduates of (mostly) non-GCSE vocational programmes from the perspective of their transition to adulthood. The analytical framework used for this research is life course theory, according to which it is possible to approach the transition from youth to adulthood as a multiple transition. This point corresponds well with reality because young people follow at least three trajectories on their way to adulthood: from school to work, from family of origin to family of procreation, and from dependence to independence. The data necessary for the analysis were collected through repeated biographical and semi-structured interviews with 14 long-term unemployed graduates of non-GCSE vocational programmes and 6 employed graduates of vocational programmes as a reference group. Their implicit theories of adulthood, progress on the path to adulthood, and everyday strategies were examined in a qualitative data analysis, with special attention paid to contextual aspects. As for the dominant form of transition, the author found that long-term unemployment has a delaying impact on the transition to adulthood, above all owing to financial strain. These people suffer from prolonged economical dependency on their parents and remain at the threshold of the socially constructed path to adulthood. Typically there social status is vague.

Keywords: transition to adulthood, long-term unemployment, graduates of vocational programmes, life course theory, Czech Republic.

František Bartoš: Škála měřící intenzitu neklinického narcismu: konstrukce a zjištění [101]

Abstract: The article informs readers about the construction of a test of narcissism and associated phenomena. The author developed a scale based on a definition from the American Psychiatric Association (DSM IV-TR) and it is intended for use in standardised sociological surveys of non-clinical populations. The author tested it in two surveys: a pilot survey (N=141, snowball sampling) and in a representative survey of the Czech Republic (N=1081, quota sampling). The resulting parameters (17 items, the common factor exhausts 47% of the variance, Cronbach’s alfa = 0,926) indicate that the test is more reliable than other instruments used to date (NPI, NPI-16) and owing to its smaller scope is also easy to use in questionnaire surveys. Intensive questioning confirmed the scale’s validity and produced results that correspond with the findings of psychologists focusing on this issue. The author inductively arrived at an auxiliary typology of narcissism. In the text he distinguishes between voluntary and involuntary narcissists, the characteristics of which are described in literature published to date. The findings presented in the article support the view of cognitive psychologists (e.g. J. Beck) who interpret narcissism as a ‘defective cognitive scheme’. However, given the scope of the phenomenon measured in the Czech Republic (narcissistic features can be observed approximately from the eighth decile), narcissism cannot still be viewed as just a marginal and pathological phenomenon. On the contrary, it is necessary to approach it as a phenomenon that has a strong social aspect and also plays a significant role in how modern society functions. In the Czech population narcissistic features are most often observed among the young generation (aged 18–29), childless, singles and people living in communities with more than 5000 inhabitants. As well as identifying narcissism as a socio-cultural phenomenon the article also demonstrates the relationship between the observed phenomenon and homosexuality.

Keywords: narcissism, scale, social changes, culture, identity, homosexuality.

ESEJE

Hana Librová: Individualizace v environmentální perspektivě: sociologické rámování mění pohled a plodí otázky [125]

Abstract: This article inquires into the connection between individualisation and environmental issues. Following an introduction to the topic in the opening of the article in chapters II and III the author provides a definition of some basic concepts and asks whether and how the relationship between individualisation and environmental issues is reflected in sociological literature. In chapter IV the author formulates a general framework that in chapter V gives insight into the inconsistent conception of individualisation in environmental ideologies. The article closes with chapter VI, in which, with the aid of a theoretical sociological framework, the author formulates some themes for studying the environmental aspects of the individualised lifestyle.

Keywords: individualisation, environmental ideology, way of life, reintegration.

RECENZE

Miroslav Paulíček: Pavel Zahrádka: Vysoké versus populární umění – Jiří Šafr: Životní styl a sociální třídy: vytváření symbolické kulturní hranice diferenciací vkusu a spotřeby – Jiří Vaněk: Způsoby estetického prožívání [153]

Romana Benešová: Lucie Vidovićová: Stárnutí, věk a diskriminace – nové souvislosti [156]

Zdeněk R. Nešpor: Karel Krejčí: Sociologie literatury [159]

Ondřej Špaček: Géraldine Pflieger, Luca Pattaroni, Christophe Jemelin, Vincent Kaufmann (eds.): The Social Fabric of the Networked City [161]

Karel Černý: Andrew Kohut, Bruce Stokes: America Against the World. How We Are Different and Why We Are Disliked [164]

Kateřina Ivanová: Miroslav Dopita: Pierre Bourdieu – o umění, výchově a společnosti. Reflexe sociologické praxe Pierra Bourdieua v české sociologii [168]

Olga Nešporová: Glennys Howarth: Death and Dying. A Sociological Introduction [172]

ZPRÁVY

Kateřina Ivanová: Mezinárodní letní škola Comparative Research Methodologies in Health and Medical Sociology [177]

Karel Müller: Mezinárodní konference o sociální dimenzi inovací [179]

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