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Sociologický časopis – 2/2010

Záznam přidán/aktualizován: 29. březen 2011 v 12.58 hod.

Obsah čísla


Jana Straková: Přidaná hodnota studia na víceletých gymnáziích ve světle dostupných datových zdrojů [187]

Abstract: The results of students at different basic and secondary schools vary largely in the Czech Republic compared to other countries, and there is a strong connection between the results of students and family background. The Czech education system is also highly stratified, and student tracking begins at a young age. In this respect the most controversial element in the system are the multi-year gymnasia, the existence of which is nonetheless strongly supported by the public. This support is based on the conviction that multi-year gymnasia provide the most talented students with a good education, enable more rapid cognitive development for these students, and thus help cultivate Czech elites. This article sets out to verify whether multi-year gymnasia genuinely fulfil the function associated with them. Hypotheses about the role of multi-year gymnasia are tested using data from the OECD PISA 2000 and OECD PISA 2006 surveys, the PISA-L longitudinal survey, and Higher Education Studies 2004 survey. The main analytic methods used are multi-level modelling and logistic regression.

Keywords: student achievement, socioeconomic status, tracking, multi-year gymnasia.


Jaroslava Hasmanová Marhánková: Konstruování představ aktivního stárnutí v centrech pro seniory [211]

Abstract: Current demographic trends are calling forth the need to redefine the meaning of old age and its place in society. The concept of active ageing can be seen as a reaction to these efforts to reconceptualise life in old age. This article first briefly describes the context that gave rise to the term ‘active ageing’ and how this concept is framed as ‘ageing well’ in national and international documents and in the discourse of gerontology. Based on ethnographic studies of two centres offering leisure activities for seniors (mainly using participant observation and in-depth and informal interviews with clients and employees), the article shows 1) how the idea of active ageing and generally of being active as an desirable or undesirable lifestyle in old age is constructed in the framework of the centre’s general operations, and 2) how the clients themselves relate to this idea. The objective of the article is to reveal the significance of active ageing in the formation of a normative image of ‘ageing well’, which on the one hand helps seniors break away from stereotypical notions of ageing, but on the other hand generates new inequalities based on the ability or willingness to ‘age actively’.

Keywords: active ageing discourse; activity; ageing; ethnography; leisure; lifestyle in old age.

Tomáš Kobes: Fajta a povaha příbuzenství obyvatel východoslovenských romských osad [235]

Abstract: European kinship is usually conceptualised as one of the elements that forms the boundary between nature and culture. However, this implicitly assumed biogenetic basis of membership in a particular descent group is not evident in the case of kinship among inhabitants of a Roma settlement. The nature of their kinship can be described as the incorporative process of women and pristašis into descent groups. The fundamental criterion for an expectant partner in marriage is to be ‘lačhe’ (good, proper, appropriate). The division of people in a Roma settlement into two basic groups (lačhe versus degešis) does not mean that these people form endogamous groups defined by procreation. It is rather a matter of moral ideas about what makes people good or bad. Two complementary principles play an important role in these ideas. The first principle relates to the natural base, the second to the process of socialisation. In this respect, fajta does not just refer to a cognatic descent group, but also has another dimension, which cannot simply be defined in terms of procreation and which indicates a shift towards a common basis. This can be demonstrated in the example of pristašis, which is a long-term process of incorporation in which fajta, as the domain of nature, shifts to the frame of culture. Despite of the difficulty of determining whether people were born or socialised into a particular fajta, kinship in a Roma settlement should be studied within the wider organisational complex that on the one hand makes some people related and homogenous and on the other hand excludes other people from this relatedness.

Keywords: Roma, Roma settlements, kinship, cognatic descent groups, nature, culture, Slovakia.

Michaela Pyšňáková, Barbora Hohnová: Od monolitické masy k neomezenému individualismu? Význam spotřeby v každodenním životě „mainstreamové mládeže“ [257]

Abstract: This article deals with the concept of ‘mainstream youth’ in the context of late modernity. The sociology of youth has traditionally operated from two distinct perspectives concerned with either ‚youth transitions‘ or ‚youth (sub)cultures’. This polarisation has led to the neglect of the experience of mainstream youth, who cannot be easily pigeon-holed into the above categories. Drawing on a series of focus groups and small-group semi-structured interviews with 61 young people, the authors analysed young people’s experience of consumption in the Czech Republic. Using the experience of young consumers, the research attempted to understand what it means to belong to the mainstream. The results indicate that belonging to the mainstream does not imply straightforward compliance with dominant power structures, but rather reflects a degree of reflexivity in which young people challenge stereotypes of passive conformism in complex and often paradoxical ways that are not yet well accounted for in the literature. The article suggests that the notion of ‘mainstream youth’ offers some potential as a conceptual way of understanding young people‘s relationship to social change in what appears to be an increasingly individualised society. At the same time, this notion provides an alternative approach that challenges many of the assumptions underpinning the sociology of youth’s conception of consumption.

Keywords: mainstream youth, cultural and structural approach, individualisation, consumption, brands, conformity, negotiation, focus groups.

Zdenka Vajdová, Josef Bernard, Jana Stachová, Daniel Čermák: Síť institucionálních aktérů rozvoje malého města [281]

Abstract: The aim of the article is to describe the relations between institutions in the public, private and non-profit sectors that are considered the most important actors of negotiation and decision-making in local development. These institutions and the relations between them are defined as a social network. A study was carried out in the small Czech towns of Blatná, Český Krumlov and Velké Meziříčí, and data were collected in 2007 and 2008. The first part of the article describes the institutional actors, the collection of the relational data, and the context of the three towns that were studied. The analytical part consists of social network analysis. Basic quantitative characteristics are used to describe and compare the social networks of the institutional actors in the local development of the three towns. The conclusions indicate the unconditional significance of local public administration institutions and the significance of other local institutions; relations to extra-local institutions are rather weak. A section on methodology at the end of the article contains methodological notes on Hellinger divergence and SNA.

Keywords: social network analysis, institutional actors in local development, Blatná, Český Krumlov, Velké Meziříčí.


Karel Černý: Dvě tváře S. P. Huntingtona: Od teorií modernizace k civilizacionistice [301]


Laco Toušek: Jan Keller: Nejistota a důvěra aneb K čemu je modernitě dobrá tradice [313]

Zdeněk Sloboda: Alena Křížková, Radka Dudová, Hana Hašková, Hana Maříková, Zuzana Uhde (eds.): Práce a péče [315]

Zdeněk R. Nešpor: Grace Davieová: Výjimečný případ Evropa. Podoby víry v dnešním světě [318]

Ondřej Hejnal: Werner Cohn: Cikáni [321]

Jakub Havlíček: Miroslav Hroch: Národy nejsou dílem náhody. Příčiny a předpoklady utváření moderních evropských národů [323]

Antonín Rašek: Jan Eichler: Mezinárodní bezpečnost v době globalizace [327]

Michal Kotík: Michel Foucault: Zrození biopolitiky [330]

Jana Vitvarová: Murray Lee, Stephen Farrall (eds.): Fear of Crime. Critical Voices in an Age of Anxiety [334]

Marcela Petrová Kafková: Peter Gruss (ed.): Perspektivy stárnutí: z pohledu psychologie celoživotního vývoje [337]

Ram Thein: Suman Fernando, Frank Keating (eds.): Mental Health in a Multi-Ethnic Society: A Multidisciplinary Handbook [339]


Dušan Lužný: Seminář Aktuální výzkumy v sociologii náboženství v České republice a ustavení sekce sociologie náboženství [343]

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