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Sociologický časopis – 3/2010

Záznam přidán/aktualizován: 29. březen 2011 v 12.59 hod.

Obsah čísla

Marek Skovajsa: Editorial [346]

STATI

Martin Lux, Petr Sunega: Private Rental Housing in the Czech Republic: Growth and…? [349]

Abstract: The goal of this article is to describe the development of private rental housing after 1990 in the Czech Republic and especially to demonstrate the significance of state regulations on people’s expectations, social norms, and thus the form of housing systems emerging in transition countries. The argument of this article is that state interventions affecting property restitution, the protection of tenants, rent regulation, and the relative subsidisation of individual housing tenures are crucial factors infl uencing the perception and significance of private renting in the Czech Republic. At the beginning of the transition there was a universe of options: the private rental sector could evolve into a stable and significant tenure or into a weak, volatile, and residual type of housing. The particular rules of the game – state regulations – led to the quick supply of new private rental dwellings, but at the same time they substantially constrained the long-term demand for this type of housing. Like in those advanced countries where a more dramatic form of private rental housing liberalisation occurred, in the Czech Republic the significance of rental housing quickly shifted to become a temporary and residual form of housing. This article is thus about the ‘greenfield’ establishment of a housing system and how initial state regulations create or modify the long-term social norms relating to housing tenures and especially to private rental housing tenure.

Keywords: Czech Republic, housing system, private rental housing, transition economies, housing theory

Pat Lyons, Lukáš Linek: Party System Nationalisation and Non-uniform Vote Switching. Evidence from the Czech Republic [375]

Abstract: National rather than regional party systems are the norm in most democratic states. This has been interpreted as meaning that most voters view inter-party competition in the same way. With a high level of party system nationalisation the relative proportion of electoral support attracted by parties across all constituencies tends to be very similar although the absolute level of party support changes across elections. Sociological and institutional explanations have been used to account for party system nationalisation. Both of these explanations have generally made causal inferences using aggregate data. The link between party system nationalisation and the individual voter has not been examined in the same detail. Here this link is explored using an ecological inference analysis of vote switching. This research, using the Czech Republic as a case study, shows that the presence of high party system nationalisation evident across a pair of elections may be associated with nonuniform electoral swings. These results demonstrate that evidence of party system nationalisation should not be taken to mean that all voters view electoral choices in the same way.

Keywords: party system nationalisation, vote switching, ecological inference, Czech Republic

Tamás Keller: Self-confidence and Earning Inequalities: A Test on Hungarian Data [401]

Abstract: It is easy to see that highly fatalistic, inefficient persons believe that their actions have little outcome. Because greater fatalism lowers an employee’s effort level, it may result in lower wages, while the anti-fatalistic attitude translates into more effective work that in turn may be rewarded with a higher salary. In this article the author tests a self-confidence scale that is similar to the most widely used Rotter locus of control scale. People with high self-confidence have determination, feel they have an influence on their future, and are optimistic. In the analysis the author investigates the predictive power of self-confidence in wage equations using Hungarian data.

Keywords: personality traits, self-confidence, locus of control, earning inequalities, labour market, Hungary

Jana Chaloupková: The De-standardisation of Early Family Trajectories in the Czech Republic: A Cross-cohort Comparison [427]

Abstract: Drawing upon the trajectory-based (holistic) approach, this article compares early family trajectories observed during the socialist period with those after the transition to a market economy in the Czech Republic. It aims (1) to provide an empirical analysis of change in the heterogeneity of early family trajectories between the ages of 18 and 35 and (2) to identify their distinct patterns. To do this an entropy index and optimal matching analysis is applied. The paper uses data from the ISSP 2002, which included questions on partnership and family history in the Czech Republic. The findings show that the process of de-standardisation is quite complex and non-uniform. Cohorts born from the 1970s on experience more diverse early family trajectories than older cohorts, mainly due to increasing unmarried cohabitation. However, in the cohort born in the 1980s we can observe a reversal trend of declining diversity of family statuses in the subjects’ early twenties due to the postponement of family related transitions. Even among older birth cohorts, who experienced their family starts under the socialist regime, it is possible to find a certain plurality of family starts, differentiated by the level of education.

Keywords: life course de-standardisation, family trajectory, sequence analysis, ISSP 2002, Czech Republic

Zuzana Podaná: Reporting to the Police as a Response to Intimate Partner Violence [453]

Abstract: Research on police involvement in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) focuses mainly on best intervention strategies and often neglects the key prerequisite of any intervention: the victim’s decision to contact the police. This article concentrates on the circumstances that make IPV incidents more likely to be reported to the police, and it also analyses the reasons for victims’ not reporting and for their distrust of the police. It makes use of data from the Czech part of the International Violence Against Women Survey, which allows us to analyse the reporting behaviour of 709 female victims of IPV. The reporting rate among them is very low – only 8%. Logistic regression models of reporting confirmed the high relevance of the features of the particular incident and revealed also several factors related to the history of violence in the relationship; on the other hand, the victim’s resources were found to have no influence. Distrust of the police proved to be an important factor for not reporting to the police (29% of women), and further analysis of this factor suggested the possible occurrence of learned helplessness syndrome among some victims. An additional substantial outcome of this study is its highlighting of the importance of different forms of psychological abuse (threats vs. control) which have diverse effects on victims’ reporting behaviour.

Keywords: intimate partner violence, victim reporting behaviour, International Violence Against Women Survey, Czech Republic

RECENZE

Oliver Pamp: Lane Kenworthy and Alexander Hicks (eds.): Method and Substance in Macrocomparative Analysis [475]

Jiří Přibáň: Mathieu Deflem: Sociology of Law: Visions of a Scholarly Tradition [478]

Jay Ginn: B. Marin and E. Zolyomi (eds.): Women’s Work and Pensions: What Is Good, What Is Best? [480]

Elaine Weiner: Gillian Pascall and Anna Kwak: Gender Regimes in Transition in Central and Eastern Europe [482]

Stéphan Vincent-Lancrin: Donald E. Heller and Madeleine B. d’Ambrosio (eds.): Generational Shockwaves and the Implications for Higher Education [485]

Umut Korkut: Mitchell A. Orenstein, Stephen Bloom, and Nicole Lindstrom (eds.): Transnational Actors in Central and East European Transitions [486]

Hildegard Theobald: Manfred Huber, Ricardo Rodrigues, Frederique Hoffmann, Katrin Gasior and Bernd Marin: Facts and Figures on Long-term Care in Europe and North America [488]

Tomáš Katrňák: Hynek Jeřábek and Petr Soukup (eds.): Advanced Lazarsfeldian Methodology [491]

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