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Sociologický časopis – 5/2010

Záznam přidán/aktualizován: 29. březen 2011 v 13.01 hod.

Obsah čísla

STATI

Daniel Čermák, Jana Stachová: Zdroje institucionální důvěry v České republice [683]

Abstract: This article sets out to identify the factors that can help explain trust in selected political institutions in the Czech Republic – the Government, the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic, regional assemblies, and municipal assemblies – and determine what kind of influence certain factors have on the overall level of trust in the population. The life-time learning model devised by the American sociologists Mishler and Rose, who combine cultural and institutional approaches to explain trust in institutions, was used as the theoretical framework for this investigation. Logistic regression models were created for each of the observed institutions. The data used to build the models were drawn from a series of surveys conducted under the ‘Czech Society’ project by the Public Opinion Research Centre at the Institute of Sociology of the Academy of Sciences. The results of the logistic regression analyses showed that the particular level of trust in an institutions is infl uenced more by institutional performance (and this influence most pronounced in the case of the Government and the Chamber of Deputies) than by the effect of socialisation within the predominant political culture, which was not very strong. Nevertheless, the effect of culturally dependent variables such as gender and religious confession is not negligible.

Keywords: trust in institutions, political institutions, logistic regression, lifetime learning model, Czech Republic.

ZE SOCIOLOGICKÝCH VÝZKUMŮ

Dan Ryšavý, Pavel Šaradín: Straníci, bezpartijní a nezávislí zastupitelé na českých radnicích [719]

Abstract: In the Czech Republic, associations of independent candidates play an exceptional role in local politics; in fact, members of such associations are the most common type of politician in the country. Even the large political parties do have enough members to put together candidate lists in most municipalities without the help of candidates not affiliated to any political party. This article demonstrates the cogency of distinguishing between two types of non-party politicians. First, there are politicians (candidates, councillors) who are not members of any political party but take advantage of the opportunity to run for them. Second, there are independents who run either independently or on the candidate lists of associations of independent candidates. While similar in many respects, there are also important differences between the two. Independents are more frequently women and people who before November 1989 were not members of the Communist Party. Compared to political party members, non-members are often elected on the basis of preference votes, but have smaller ambitions and often do not stand for re-election. A new finding is that a not insignificant number of political party members began their political career as independents, before joining a political party. The article draws on data from the international survey Municipal Assemblies in European Local Governance (MAELG), which concentrates on the recruitment, political careers, values, attitudes and working conditions of councillors in municipalities with a population over 10 000 inhabitants. In view of the importance of the size of the municipality, the Czech survey was expanded to include councillors from municipalities with a population between 3000 and 10 000 inhabitants.

Keywords: local government, Czech Republic, political party members, independents, independent lists, members of assemblies, local elections, municipality size.

František Bartoš: Širší souvislosti neklinického narcismu: profesní život, komunikace a sebekontrola [745]

Abstract: The author of this article conducted a representative survey (N=1081) to examine the signs of non-clinical narcissism in professional life, human relations, and self-control. He found that people with narcissistic characteristics more often occupy socio-professional positions that place high demands on self-presentation, which means on appearance and demeanour. People with narcissistic characteristics also tend to seek out such professions more often. The interest in obtaining jobs that place high demands on self-presentation is more strongly associated with non-clinical narcissism than with whether or not the individual currently occupies such a position. Respondents with narcissistic characteristics also more often profess better chances of succeeding in such a position. People with narcissistic characteristics typically communicate on two typical levels: ego-confirmative and negotiative. Narcissistic types generally use communication primarily as a means of presenting their idealised Self (ego-confirmative level). However, when respondents who scored as narcissists in the test enter an interaction from which only one side can profit (negotiative comunication), they defend only their own interests and pay little attention to the needs of others. Narcissistic types also exhibit a higher level of self-control, which some criminologists associate with delinquency.

Keywords: Non-clinical narcissism, profession, self-presentation, communication, human relations, self-control.

Ondrej Kaščák, Branislav Pupala: Neoliberálna guvernmentalita v sociálnom projektovaní vzdelávania [771]

Abstract: The article examines the application of ‘governmentality studies’ to the field of education and particularly to the formation of social representations of the goals and needs of contemporary education and current curriculum design. The field of governmentality studies is based on Michel Foucault’s analyses of social power and the technologies of power, which in later writings he applied to liberal government and liberal notions of social control. This perspective provides better insight into contemporary neoliberal technologies of social control and the related technology of social control in general, examples of which in various social sectors are then provided by the authors in the article. The education sector must also be understood in the context of neoliberal governmentality, which casts in a new light many educational strategies that are generally accepted without question. The strategy of lifelong education must then be released from its representation as a natural right and instead included among the strategies of social coercion and domination directed at the inter-institutionalisation of education. Equally, it is also possible to expose debunk the skills-based concept of ‘enterprise curriculum’ that blurs the difference between general and professional education as a neoliberal power strategy. The results of the failure to apply this perspective to the education sector are the unchallenged ideologisation of contemporary education discourse and the formation of educational strategies that generate many undesirable consequences.

Keywords: governmentality studies, neoliberalism, self-entrepreneur, enterprise curriculum, lifelong learning.

ESEJE

Miloslav Petrusek: Zygmunt Bauman: „tropika diskursu“, slovo o pop-kultuře a spotřební společnosti epochy „tekuté modernity“ [801]

Abstract: Zygmunt Bauman’s distinctive language style plays an important role in his works and sets him apart from the ‘post-modern sociologists’, among whom he does not count himself. After a short overview of the metaphors and metonymies that Bauman uses and that a) distinguish himself from the incomprehensible language of the ‘post-modernists’ and b) open up new perspectives on both classical and new sociological themes, the author turns to Bauman’s concept of ‘liquid modernity’, the cultural substance that for Bauman is part of the consumer society. While Bauman refrains from entering the debates over ‘high’ and ‘low’ culture (he does not use the term ‘mass culture’ at all), he formulates a number of interesting observations on contemporary ‘pop culture’.

Keywords: Zygmunt Bauman, language style, popular culture, sociology of the post-modern age, consumer society, post-modern age, consumer society.

NEKROLOGY

Miloslav Petrusek: Za Irenou Dubskou (1924–2010) [821]

Jiří Šubrt, Marek Německý: Sociologické dílo Shmuela N. Eisenstadta se uzavřelo [823]

JUBILEA

Miroslav Dopita: Jubileum Gerlindy Šmausové/Smaus [829]

RECENZE

Laco Toušek: Philippe Bourgois, Jeff Schonberg: Righteous Dopefiend [833]

Dušan Lužný: Dana Hamplová, Blanka Řeháková: Česká religiozita na počátku 3. tisíciletí. Výsledky Mezinárodního programu sociálního výzkumu ISSP 2008 – Náboženství [835]

Veronika Frantová: Tim Edwards (ed.): Kulturální teorie: Klasické a současné přístupy [838]

Blanka Nyklová: Hana Hašková, Zuzana Uhde (eds.): Women and Social Citizenship in Czech Society: Continuity and Change [841]

Kateřina Gillárová: Markéta Škodová et al. Agenda-setting: teoretické přístupy [845]

Ondřej Hejnal: Marek Jakoubek (ed.): Cikáni a etnicita [847]

Anna Kopecká: Tomáš Dvořák: Sběrné suroviny: texty, obrazy a zvuky nedávné minulosti [851]

Přemysl Vlček: Stanislav Holubec: Sociologie světových systémů [854]

Tomáš Dvořák: Danilo Martuccelli: Sociologie modernity. Itinerář 20. století [859]

Petr Lupač: Oleg Suša: Globalizace v sociálních souvislostech současnosti: Diagnóza a analýza [862]

Jindra Tichá: Petr Szczepanik: Konzervy se slovy. Počátky zvukového filmu a česká mediální kultura 30. let [865]

Martina Štípková: Kathleen Gerson: The Unfinished Revolution. How a New Generation is Reshaping Family, Work, and Gender in America [868]

ZPRÁVY

Petr Lupač: XVII. ISA World Congress of Sociology: Sociology on the Move [871]

Marek Skovajsa: XIV. kongres Polské sociologické společnosti [873]

Tomáš Kostelecký, Zdenka Vajdová: Konference Desaťročia premien slovenskej spoločnosti [875]

mpet: Cena Nadace Dagmar a Václava Havlových Vize 97 Konradu Paulu Liessmannovi [878]

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